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The primary objective of a Colombian ETS would be to support the country to achieve its climate targets as defined in its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC): a 20 - 30% reduction in GHG emissions compared to the business as usual scenario by 2030. An ETS, like a carbon tax (which could be used at the same time), can also raise revenue. Neither of these pricing policies constitutes a complete climate mitigation policy. On 27 July 2018, Colombia adopted a climate law, which outlines provisions for the establishment of a National Program of Greenhouse Gas Tradable Emission Quotas. This makes Colombia the second country in Latin America (joining Mexico) to enact legislation for what is likely to become a national Emissions Trading System (ETS). Colombia also already has a carbon tax that covers many fossil fuels and an offset system that can be used instead of paying this tax. This paper presents a working model for what an ETS could look like in Colombia and was part of a larger project, funded by the World Bank´s Partnership for Market Readiness with support from the Colombian government. While the working model in this paper was designed specifically for Colombia, taking into account its GHG emissions profile and a variety of contextual parameters, many of its design lessons extend to other countries and/or regions. We designed this model with the aim of including all sectors and covering nearly all the country´s emissions.
Authors: Suzi Kerr, Juan-Pablo Montero, Ruben Lubowski, Angel